Gloucester is a traditional, unpasteurised, semi-hard cheese which has been made in Gloucestershire, England, since the 16th century, at one time made only with the milk of the now nearly-extinct Gloucester cow.

There are two types of Gloucester cheese: Single and Double. The main difference is that Single Gloucester is made with skimmed milk combined with a small amount of whole milk. Double Gloucester is made from only whole milk.

Both types have a natural rind and a hard texture, but Single Gloucester is more crumbly, lighter in texture and lower in fat. Double Gloucester is allowed to age for longer periods than Single, and it has a stronger and more savoury flavour. It is also slightly firmer. Both types are produced in round shapes, but Double Gloucester rounds are larger. Traditionally whereas the Double Gloucester was a prized cheese comparable in quality to the best Cheddar or Cheshire, and was exported out of the County, Single Gloucester tended to be consumed within the County.

Huntsman cheese is made with alternating layers of Double Gloucester and Stilton.

Double Gloucester cheese is also used every spring for the Cooper's Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake, a dangerous sport that takes place on a steep Gloucestershire hillside.