Caşcaval (Romanian pronunciation: [kaʃkaˈval]) is the traditional name for a specific semi-hard cheese made in Romania, with sheep's or cow's-milk cheese. Several sorts of the Romanian caşcaval have PDO status in the E.U. It is quite similar to the Balkan, Greek and Sicilian Caciocavallo cheese, taking its name from the latter.

The term is often used by extension as a generic name for all semi-hard yellow cheeses such as the Swiss Emmental cheese, the Dutch gouda and the British Cheddar, or anything that looks similar to the caşcaval.